There are times when you may miss a flight or realise too late that you won't be able to take it due to a change in plans, except, the ticket is non-refundable. If you are enrolled in the miles program, then does this mean you earn the miles since you purchased the ticket even if you don't take the flight?
This is a quandary we recently faced too. But the terms and conditions of most miles programs don't give their customers this privilege even if they've spent their money.
DailyO also went through the terms and conditions of Air India Flying Returns, which said this:
If you are unsure of your journey or you just want to remain on the safe side if the ticket is non-refundable, but want to book ahead to avoid the price hike, then a lot of travel booking portals like Make My Trip allow you to "lock the price" of a flight by paying a small advance.
You will be able to book the same flight after a few days, usually a week, for the price you locked it at or less if the prices have dropped, whichever is less.
Bottomline: No, you will not get the airline miles or points if you don't actually complete the flight. It doesn't matter that the money you paid is gone; and that you weren't even getting any points out of it. (it's unfair, we get it, but it is what it is)